- 家庭での食事時間が子供の食行動に与える影響を検証する研究 Study examines influence of longer family meals on children’s eating behavior
家庭での食事時間が子供の食行動に与える影響を検証する研究 Study examines influence of longer family meals on children’s eating behavior
The bite-sized pieces of fruits and vegetables are easier to eat and thus more enticing, assume the researcher.
© Marliese Zeidler / Pixabay
家族での食事時間が長いことが子どもの果物・野菜摂取量に与える影響:無作為化臨床試 Effect of Longer Family Meals on Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Intake: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Mattea Dallacker, Vanessa Knobl, Ralph Hertwig, Jutta Mata
JAMA Network Open Published:April 3, 2023
Question How does increased family mealtime duration affect children’s fruit and vegetable intake?
Findings In this randomized clinical trial of 50 parent-child dyads, children aged 6 to 11 years ate significantly more fruits and vegetables when family meals lasted approximately 10 minutes longer. Intake of other foods offered did not increase.
Meaning Findings of this trial indicate that increasing family mealtime duration is a simple, inexpensive, and low-threshold intervention that can significantly improve children’s diets.
Importance Family meals are a formative learning environment that shapes children’s food choices and preferences. As such, they are an ideal setting for efforts to improve children’s nutritional health.
Objective To examine the effect of extending the duration of family meals on the fruit and vegetable intake in children.
Design, Setting, and Participants This randomized clinical trial used a within-dyad manipulation design and was conducted from November 8, 2016, to May 5, 2017, in a family meal laboratory in Berlin, Germany. Included in the trial were children aged 6 to 11 years who did not follow a special diet or have food allergies and adult parents who served as the nutritional gatekeeper in the household (ie, the family member responsible for at least half of the food planning and preparation). All participants underwent 2 conditions: control, defined as regular family mealtime duration, and intervention, defined as 50% longer mealtime duration (10 minutes longer on average). Participants were randomized to the condition they would complete first. Statistical analyses of the full sample were conducted between June 2 and October 30, 2022.
Interventions Participants had 2 free evening meals under different conditions. In the control or regular condition, each dyad ate in the same amount of time as their reported regular mealtime duration. In the intervention or longer condition, each dyad had 50% more time to eat than their reported regular mealtime duration.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the number of pieces of fruits and vegetables eaten by the child during a meal.
Results A total of 50 parent-child dyads participated in the trial. Parents had a mean (range) age of 43 (28-55 years) years and were predominantly mothers (36 [72%]). Children had a mean (range) age of 8 (6-11) years and included an equal number of girls and boys (25 [50%]). Children ate significantly more pieces of fruits (t49 = 2.36, P = .01; mean difference [MD], 3.32 [95% CI, 0.96 to ∞]; Cohen d = 0.33) and vegetables (t49 = 3.66, P < .001; MD, 4.05 [95% CI, 2.19 to ∞]; Cohen d = 0.52) in the longer condition than in the regular mealtime duration condition. Consumption of bread and cold cuts did not significantly differ between conditions. The children’s eating rate (bites per minute over the regular mealtime duration) was significantly lower in the longer than in the regular condition (t49 = -7.60, P < .001; MD, -0.72 [95% CI, -0.56 to ∞]; Cohen d = 1.08). Children reported significantly higher satiety after the longer condition (V = 36.5, P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance Results of this randomized clinical trial suggest that the simple, low-threshold intervention of increasing family mealtime duration by approximately 10 minutes can improve the quality of children’s diet and eating behavior. The findings underscore the potential for such an intervention to improve public health.
Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03127579
質は重要である: 健康的な家庭料理の構成要素に関するメタ分析。 Quality matters: A meta-analysis on components of healthy family meals.
Dallacker, M., Hertwig, R., & Mata, J.
Health Psychology Published:2019
Objective: A greater frequency of family meals is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index (BMI) in children. However, the effect sizes are small, and it remains unclear which qualitative components of family meals contribute to these positive health outcomes. This meta-analysis synthesizes studies on social, environmental, and behavioral attributes of family meals and identifies components of family meals that are related to better nutritional health in children. Method: A systematic literature search (50 studies; 49,137 participants; 61 reported effect sizes) identified 6 different components of healthy family mealtimes. Separate meta-analyses examined the association between each component and children’s nutritional health. Age (children vs. adolescents), outcome type (BMI vs. diet quality), and socioeconomic status (SES; controlled vs. not controlled for SES) were examined as potential moderators. Results: Positive associations consistently emerged between 5 components and children’s nutritional health: turning the TV off during meals (r = .09), parental modeling of healthy eating (r = .12), higher food quality (r = .12), positive atmosphere (r = .13), children’s involvement in meal preparation (r = .08), and longer meal duration (r = .20). No moderating effects were found. Conclusions: How a family eats together shows significant associations with nutritional health in children. Randomized control trials are needed to further verify these findings. The generalizability of the identified mealtime components to other contexts of social eating is also discussed. (APA PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)