HIV免疫反応を特定する(Pinpointing HIV immune response)


2023-10-31 ロスアラモス国立研究所(LANL)

◆研究はCD8+ T細胞に焦点を当て、HIV感染の制御メカニズムについての議論を解決しました。結論は、T細胞が感染細胞を殺すこととウイルスを制御することの両方が一部寄与していることでした。この研究は、HIV研究における未解決の問題を解決し、将来の治療法の開発に貢献する可能性があります。


CD8+T細胞は細胞溶解作用と非細胞溶解性のウイルス産生抑制の両方を用いてSIV感染を制御する CD8+ T cells control SIV infection using both cytolytic effects and non-cytolytic suppression of virus production

Benjamin B. Policicchio,Erwing Fabian Cardozo-Ojeda,Cuiling Xu,Dongzhu Ma,Tianyu He,Kevin D. Raehtz,Ranjit Sivanandham,Adam J. Kleinman,Alan S. Perelson,Cristian Apetrei,Ivona Pandrea & Ruy M. Ribeiro
Nature Communications  Published:20 October 2023

figure 1


Whether CD8+ T lymphocytes control human immunodeficiency virus infection by cytopathic or non-cytopathic mechanisms is not fully understood. Multiple studies highlighted non-cytopathic effects, but one hypothesis is that cytopathic effects of CD8+ T cells occur before viral production. Here, to examine the role of CD8+ T cells prior to virus production, we treated SIVmac251-infected macaques with an integrase inhibitor combined with a CD8-depleting antibody, or with either reagent alone. We analyzed the ensuing viral dynamics using a mathematical model that included infected cells pre- and post- viral DNA integration to compare different immune effector mechanisms. Macaques receiving the integrase inhibitor alone experienced greater viral load decays, reaching lower nadirs on treatment, than those treated also with the CD8depleting antibody. Models including CD8+ cell-mediated reduction of viral production (non-cytolytic) were found to best explain the viral profiles across all macaques, in addition an effect in killing infected cells pre-integration (cytolytic) was supported in some of the best models. Our results suggest that CD8+ T cells have both a cytolytic effect on infected cells before viral integration, and a direct, non-cytolytic effect by suppressing viral production.