ピーナッツとハーブ・スパイスが腸内細菌叢にポジティブな影響を与える可能性(Peanuts and herbs and spices may positively impact gut microbiome)


アメリカン・ダイエットにピーナッツとハーブ・スパイスを加えることで、健康増進に関連する腸内細菌が豊富になることを示す2つの研究結果が発表されました Two studies show that adding peanuts and herbs and spices to the American Diet can increase the abundance of gut bacteria associated with better health

2022-12-02 ペンシルベニア州立大学(PennState)



空腹時血糖値が高い成人において、夜食としてのピーナッツは、等カロリーの低脂肪高炭水化物スナックと比較して、酪酸産生菌を豊かにする。無作為クロスオーバー試験 Peanuts as a nighttime snack enrich butyrate-producing bacteria compared to an isocaloric lower-fat higher-carbohydrate snack in adults with elevated fasting glucose: A randomized crossover trial

Philip A.Sapp,Penny M.Kris-Etherton,Elke A.Arnesen,Jeremy R.Chen See,ReginaLamendella,Kristina S.Petersen
Clinical Nutrition  Available online :13 August 2022

Fig. 2


Tree nuts have glucoregulatory effects and influence gut microbiota composition. The effect of peanuts on the microbiota has not been investigated.

The aim was to examine the effect of 28 g/d of peanuts for 6-wks, compared to an isocaloric lower-fat higher-carbohydrate (LFHC) snack, on gut microbiota composition. A secondary aim was to identify functional and active compositional differences in a subset of participants using metatranscriptomics.

In a randomized, crossover trial, 50 adults (48% female; 42 ± 15 y; BMI 28.3 ± 5.6 kg/m2; plasma glucose 100 ± 8 mg/dL) consumed 28 g/d of dry roasted, unsalted, peanuts (164 kcal; 11% E carbohydrate, 17% E protein, 73% E fat, and 2.4 g fiber) or a LFHC snack (164 kcal; 53% E carbohydrate, 17% E protein, 33% E fat, and 3 g fiber) for 6-wk (4-wk washout period). Gut bacterial composition was measured using 16S rRNA sequencing in the whole cohort. Exploratory metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on a random subset (n = 24) of samples from the Peanut condition.

No between-condition differences in α- or β- diversity were observed. Following peanut intake, Ruminococcaceae were significantly more abundant [Linear discriminant analysis score (LDA) = 2.8; P = 0.027)] compared to LFHC. Metatranscriptomics showed increased expression of the K03518 (aerobic carbon-monoxide dehydrogenase small subunit) gene following peanut intake (LDA = 2.0; P = 0.004) and Roseburia intestinalis L1-82 was identified as a contributor to the increased expression.

An increased abundance of Ruminococcaceae was observed following consumption of 28 g/d of peanuts in adults with elevated fasting glucose after 6-wks. Metatranscriptomics revealed increased expression of the K03518 gene. These results suggest peanut intake enriches a known butyrate producer and the increased expression of a gene implicated in butyrate production adds further support for peanut-induced gut microbiome modulation.

CVDリスクのある成人において、ハーブとスパイスは腸内細菌組成を調節する。無作為化クロスオーバー対照給餌試験による事前に特定した探索的解析の結果 Herbs and Spices Modulate Gut Bacterial Composition in Adults at Risk for CVD: Results of a Prespecified Exploratory Analysis from a Randomized, Crossover, Controlled-Feeding Study

Kristina S Petersen, Samantha Anderson, Jeremy R Chen See, Jillian Leister, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Regina Lamendella
The Journal of Nutrition Published:02 September 2022

β-diversity assessed by principal coordinate analysis plots based on the weighted UniFrac distance metric (A) overall and (B) separated by diet in participants at risk of CVD. LSD: n = 44; MSD: n = 52; HSD: n = 47. CVD, cardiovascular disease; HSD, high-spice diet; LSD, low-spice diet; MSD, moderate-spice diet.



Herbs and spices are rich in polyphenolic compounds that may influence gut bacterial composition. The effect of culinary doses of herbs and spices consumed as part of a well-defined dietary pattern on gut bacterial composition has not been previously studied.


The aim of this prespecified exploratory analysis was to examine gut bacterial composition following an average American diet (carbohydrate: 50% kcal; protein: 17%; total fat: 33%; saturated fat: 11%) containing herbs and spices at 0.5, 3.3, and 6.6 g.d–1.2100 kcal–1 [low-, moderate-, and high-spice diets, respectively (LSD, MSD, and HSD)] in adults at risk for CVD.


Fifty-four adults (57% female; mean ± SD age: 45 ± 11 y; BMI: 29.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2; waist circumference: 102.8 ± 7.1 cm) were included in this 3-period, randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding study. Each diet was provided for 4 wk with a minimum 2-wk washout period. At baseline and the end of each diet period, participants provided a fecal sample for 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) sequencing. QIIME2 was used for data filtration, sequence clustering, taxonomy assignment, and statistical analysis.


α-diversity assessed by the observed features metric ( P = 0.046) was significantly greater following the MSD as compared with the LSD; no other between-diet differences in α-diversity were detected. Differences in β-diversity were not observed between the diets ( P = 0.45). Compared with baseline, β-diversity differed following all diets ( P < .02). Enrichment of the Ruminococcaceae family was observed following the HSD as compared with the MSD (relative abundance = 22.14%, linear discriminant analysis = 4.22, P = 0.03) and the LSD (relative abundance  = 24.90%, linear discriminant analysis = 4.47, P = 0.004).


The addition of herbs and spices to an average American diet induced shifts in gut bacterial composition after 4 wk in adults at risk for CVD. The metabolic implications of these changes merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03064932.