少量の甘草が血圧を上昇させる(Small amounts of liquorice raise blood pressure)

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2024-03-14 リンショーピング大学

リンシェーピング大学の研究者による新しい研究では、リコリスの摂取が血圧を上昇させ、心臓に負担をかけることが明らかになった。グリシルリチン酸と呼ばれる物質が含まれており、体液バランスを崩して高血圧を引き起こす。欧州連合や世界保健機関は、1日あたり100 mgのグリシルリチン酸が安全と結論づけているが、スウェーデンの5%の人々がこの基準を超えてリコリスを摂取している。これまで、これほど少量のリコリスでも血圧が上昇することは明らかにされていなかった。

<関連情報>

無作為クロスオーバー試験において、甘草の1日低用量摂取がレニン、アルドステロン、家庭血圧に影響する A low dose of daily licorice intake affects renin, aldosterone, and home blood pressure in a randomized crossover trial

Peder af Geijerstam, Annelie Joelsson, Karin Rådholm, Fredrik H Nyström
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition  Available online:20 January 2024
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajcnut.2024.01.011

FIGURE 1

Abstract

Background
Licorice, through the effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), raises blood pressure (BP). The World Health Organization has suggested that 100 mg GA/d would be unlikely to cause adverse effects, but of 13 previously published studies none have been randomized and controlled and independently quantified the GA content.

Objective
Our aim was to analyze the effects on home BP of a daily licorice intake containing 100 mg GA.

Methods
Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to start with either licorice or a control product in a nonblinded, 2 × 2 crossover study. Home BP was measured daily, and blood samples were collected at the end of each 2-wk period.

Results
There were 28 participants and no dropouts. The median age was 24.0 y (interquartile range 22.8–27.0 y). During the licorice compared with control intake period, the systolic home BP increased [mean difference: 3.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8, 5.4 mm Hg) compared with -0.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.8, 1.3 mm Hg); P = 0.018] and renin and aldosterone were suppressed [mean change: -30.0% (95% CI: -56.7%, -3.3%) compared with 15.8% (95% CI: -12.8%, 44.4%); P = 0.003; and -45.1% (95% CI: -61.5%, -28.7%) compared with 8.2% (95% CI: -14.7%, 31.1%); P <0.001, respectively]. In the quartile of participants with the most pronounced suppression of renin and aldosterone, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide concentration increased during the licorice compared with control period [mean change: 204.1% (95% CI: -11.6%, 419.7%) compared with 72.4% (95% CI: -52.2%, 197.1%); P = 0.016].

Conclusions
We found licorice to be more potent than previously known, with significant increases in BP, after a daily intake of only 100 mg GA. Thus, the safe limit of intake of this substance might need to be reconsidered.

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