動物や植物を強化する隠れたマイクロバイオーム(Hidden microbiome fortifies animals, plants too)

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シンポジウムでは、多様な生態系における、重要だが目に見えない微生物の役割に焦点を当てる Symposium focuses on important but unseen role of microbes in diverse ecosystems

2022-09-29 ワシントン大学セントルイス

マイクロバイオームとは、人間の体内やその他の場所に生息する微生物の集合体である。
サルが栄養的に、あるいは、エネルギー的に、環境にある食物によって制限された季節も含めて、異なる季節における微生物と代謝産物の相互作用を見ることができた。
微生物は、乏しい時期に補う傾向があり、宿主により多くの栄養を供給する機能を優先することを発見した。しかし、食物が本当に制限されるようになると、このシステムは崩壊します。

<関連情報>

クロホエザル(Alouatta pigra)の糞便メタボロームが季節的な食餌変化に応答して変化する様子 The faecal metabolome of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) varies in response to seasonal dietary changes

Elizabeth K. Mallott,Lotte H. Skovmand,Paul A. Garber,Katherine R. Amato
Molecular Ecology    Published: 04 June 2022
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.16559

Details are in the caption following the image

Abstract

Mammals rely on the metabolic functions of their gut microbiota to meet their energetic needs and digest potentially toxic components in their diet. The gut microbiome plastically responds to shifts in host diet and may buffer variation in energy and nutrient availability. However, it is unclear how seasonal differences in the gut microbiome influence microbial metabolism and nutrients available to hosts. In this study, we examine seasonal variation in the gut metabolome of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) to determine whether those variations are associated with differences in gut microbiome composition and nutrient intake, and if plasticity in the gut microbiome buffers shortfalls in energy or nutrient intake. We integrated data on the metabolome of 81 faecal samples from 16 individuals collected across three distinct seasons with gut microbiome, nutrient intake and plant metabolite consumption data from the same period. Faecal metabolite profiles differed significantly between seasons and were strongly associated with changes in plant metabolite consumption. However, microbial community composition and faecal metabolite composition were not strongly associated. Additionally, the connectivity and stability of faecal metabolome networks varied seasonally, with network connectivity being highest during the dry, fruit-dominated season when black howler monkey diets were calorically and nutritionally constrained. Network stability was highest during the dry, leaf-dominated season when most nutrients were being consumed at intermediate rates. Our results suggest that the gut microbiome buffers seasonal variation in dietary intake, and that the buffering effect is most limited when host diet becomes calorically or nutritionally restricted.

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