この新しい研究に参加した356人の幼児の家族は、出生から5歳まで追跡調査された子供の食生活と体重の推移を予測する相互依存的な要因を長期的に調査する、イリノイ大学のSTRONG KIDS 2コホート研究の参加者である。
STRONG Kids 2出生コホート研究に参加した米国の幼児におけるスクリーンタイムおよび身体活動ガイドラインの遵守と実行機能との関連性 Adherence to screen time and physical activity guidelines is associated with executive function in US toddlers participating in the STRONG Kids 2 birth cohort study
Arden L McMath, Samantha Iwinski, Sa Shen, Kelly F Bost, Sharon M Donovan, Naiman A Khan
The Journal of Pediatrics Published:2022 Aug 23
Objectives:To test the hypothesis that healthy weight status and adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for diet and physical activity would extend to greater executive functioning (EF) at 24-months-of-age.
Methods:Parents of 24-months-of-age children (n=356) from the STRONG Kids 2 cohort study completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for Preschoolers (BRIEF-P) and reported physical activities, diet, and screen time. Toddlers met AAP guidelines if they consumed at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables, were physically active, refrained from sugar-sweetened beverages, and limited screen time to less than 60 min each day. Relationships between EF, 24-month weight status, and meeting AAP guidelines were tested, independent of child sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, weight status at birth, and maternal pregnancy weight status.
Results:Weight-for-length z-score had no effect on EF. Toddlers meeting the screen time guideline had greater EF (β=-0.125, 95% CI=-0.234 to -0.008), inhibitory self-control (-0.142, -0.248 to -0.029), and emergent metacognition (-0.111, -0.221 to 0.002), indicated by lower BRIEF-P scores. Those with more minutes of screen time had poorer overall EF (0.257, 95% CI= 0.118 to 0.384), inhibitory self-control (0.231, 0.099 to 0.354), cognitive flexibility (0.217, 0.082 to 0.342), and emergent metacognition (0.257, 0.120 to 0.381). Being physically active every day was associated with greater emergent metacognition (-0.116, -0.225 to -0.005).
Conclusion:Meeting AAP guidelines for physical activity and screen time is related to greater EF in a demographically homogenous sample of toddlers. Future randomized control trials and more diverse samples are needed to confirm directionality of the relationship.