2023-04-03 ジョージア大学 (UGA)
COVID-19パンデミック前とパンデミック中の産後オピオイド処方の比較 Comparison of Postpartum Opioid Prescriptions Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Shelby R. Steuart, Emily C. Lawler, Grace Bagwell Adams, Hailemichael Shone, Amanda J. Abraham
JAMA Network Open Published:April 3, 2023
Question How did fills of opioid prescriptions change among postpartum women after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic?
Findings In this cross-sectional study of 460 371 privately insured postpartum women, patients who gave birth to a single, live newborn after March 2020 were more likely to fill more potent and more frequent opioid prescriptions than patients who gave birth prior to March 2020. Increases were larger for patients delivering via cesarean birth than those delivering vaginally.
Meaning This study suggests that women who gave birth after March 2020 experienced increased exposure to opioids during the postpartum period.
Importance The COVID-19 pandemic substantially disrupted routine health care and exacerbated existing barriers to health care access. Although postpartum women frequently experience pain that interferes with activities of daily living, which is often successfully treated with prescription opioid analgesics, they are also at high risk for opioid misuse.
Objective To compare postpartum opioid prescription fills after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 with fills before the pandemic.
Design, Setting, and Participants In this cross-sectional study of 460 371 privately insured postpartum women who delivered a singleton live newborn between July 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020, postpartum opioid fills before March 1, 2020, were compared with fills after March 1, 2020. Statistical analysis was performed from December 1, 2021, to September 15, 2022.
Exposure COVID-19 pandemic onset in March 2020.
Main Outcomes and Measures The main outcome was postpartum opioid fills, defined as patient fills of opioid prescriptions during the 6 months after birth. Opioid prescriptions were explored in terms of 5 measures: mean number of fills per person, mean filled morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) per day, mean days supplied, percentage of patients filling a prescription for a schedule II opioid, and percentage of patients filling a prescription for a schedule III or higher opioid.
Results Among 460 371 postpartum women (mean [SD] age at delivery, 29.0 [10.8] years), those who gave birth to a single, live newborn after March 2020 were 2.8 percentage points more likely to fill an opioid prescription than expected based on the preexisting trend (forecasted, 35.0% [95% CI, 34.0%-35.9%]; actual, 37.8% [95% CI, 36.8%-38.7%]). The COVID-19 period was also associated with an increase in MMEs per day (forecasted mean [SD], 34.1 [2.0] [95% CI, 33.6-34.7]; actual mean [SD], 35.8 [1.8] [95% CI, 35.3-36.3]), number of opioid fills per patient (forecasted, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.48-0.51]; actual, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.51-0.55]), and percentage of patients filling a schedule II opioid prescription (forecasted, 28.7% [95% CI, 27.9%-29.6%]; actual, 31.5% [95% CI, 30.6%-32.3%]). There was no significant association with days’ suppy of opioids per prescription or percentage of patients filling a prescription for a schedule III or higher opioid. Results stratified by delivery modality showed that the observed increases were larger for patients who delivered by cesarean birth than those delivering vaginally.
Conclusions and Relevance This cross-sectional study suggests that the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant increases in postpartum opioid fills. Increases in opioid prescriptions may be associated with increased risk of opioid misuse, opioid use disorder, and opioid-related overdose among postpartum women.