アディクション脆弱性特性におけるコリン作動性シグナル伝達の神経免疫調節機構 Neuro-Immune Modulation of Cholinergic Signaling in an Addiction Vulnerability Trait
Hanna Carmon, Evan C. Haley, Vinay Parikh, Natalie C. Tronson and Martin Sarter
eNeuro Published:21 February 2023
Sign-tracking (ST) describes the propensity to approach and contact a Pavlovian reward cue. By contrast, goal-trackers (GTs) respond to such a cue by retrieving the reward. These behaviors index the presence of opponent cognitive-motivational traits, with STs exhibiting attentional control deficits, behavior dominated by incentive motivational processes, and vulnerability for addictive drug taking. Attentional control deficits in STs were previously attributed to attenuated cholinergic signaling, resulting from deficient translocation of intracellular choline transporters (CHTs) into synaptosomal plasma membrane. Here, we investigated a posttranslational modification of CHTs, poly-ubiquitination, and tested the hypothesis that elevated cytokine signaling in STs contributes to CHT modification. We demonstrated that intracellular CHTs, but not plasma membrane CHTs, are highly ubiquitinated in male and female sign-tracking rats when compared with GTs. Moreover, levels of cytokines measured in cortex and striatum, but not spleen, were higher in STs than in GTs. Activation of the innate immune system by systemic administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elevated ubiquitinated CHT levels in cortex and striatum of GTs only, suggesting ceiling effects in STs. In spleen, LPS increased levels of most cytokines in both phenotypes. In cortex, LPS particularly robustly increased levels of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL10. Phenotype-specific increases were restricted to GTs, again suggesting ceiling effects in STs. These results indicate that interactions between elevated brain immune modulator signaling and CHT regulation are essential components of the neuronal underpinnings of the addiction vulnerability trait indexed by sign-tracking.