ペルム紀末の大量絶滅後の後生動物と藻類のサンゴ礁の長期的かつ段階的な回復 Prolonged and gradual recovery of metazoan-algal reefs following the end-Permian mass extinction
Brian M. Kelley;Meiyi Yu;Daniel J. Lehrmann;Demir Altıner;Jonathan L. Payne
Geology Published:August 14, 2023
The tempo of biotic recovery following extinction reflects the time scales of evolutionary processes and the long-term consequences of degraded ecosystems, but recovery patterns are poorly resolved. In this study, we investigated the tempo of biotic recovery by evaluating metazoan-algal reef assembly following the end-Permian mass extinction. We combined satellite imagery analysis, field mapping, biostratigraphy, and quantitative petrography to assess recovery in the oldest-known and most stratigraphically extensive Lower to Middle Triassic platform-margin reef. The reef occurs in upper Spathian (upper Lower Triassic) to upper Anisian (lower Middle Triassic) strata of the Great Bank of Guizhou (GBG) isolated carbonate platform in south China. Previous work suggests that metazoan-algal reefs were absent for 8–10 m.y. following extinction but were biologically diverse from their Pelsonian (middle Anisian) initiation. This pattern implies that reefs can reassemble rapidly (<< 1 m.y.) when environmental conditions are favorable. In contrast, our analyses indicate that calcareous sponges, calcareous algae, and early scleractinian corals occurred progressively in the GBG reef and that biotic recovery metrics increased gradually. Unlike nonreef ecosystems, biodiverse metazoan-algal reefs were delayed until the late Pelsonian or early Illyrian, postdating broader marine ecosystem recovery and isotopic evidence for carbon-cycle stabilization by 2–4 m.y. Our findings suggest that reef and nonreef ecosystems differ in their recovery pattern and tempo. Reef recovery from severe environmental perturbation can require several million years, even after hospitable conditions return, highlighting the importance of modern reef conservation.