COVID-19を検出する免疫系「トリップワイヤー」を発見(Researchers Find an Immune System ‘Trip Wire’ That Detects COVID-19)


2023-06-08 カリフォルニア大学サンディエゴ校(UCSD)



CARD8インフラマソームによるコロナウイルスとピコルナウイルスの宿主特異的な感知機構 Host-specific sensing of coronaviruses and picornaviruses by the CARD8 inflammasome

Brian V. Tsu,Rimjhim Agarwal,Nandan S. Gokhale,Jessie Kulsuptrakul,Andrew P. Ryan,Elizabeth J. Fay,Lennice K. Castro,Christopher Beierschmitt,Christina Yap,Elizabeth A. Turcotte,Sofia E. Delgado-Rodriguez,Russell E. Vance,Jennifer L. Hyde,Ram Savan,Patrick S. Mitchell ,Matthew D. Daugherty
PLOS Biology
  Published: June 8, 2023


Hosts have evolved diverse strategies to respond to microbial infections, including the detection of pathogen-encoded proteases by inflammasome-forming sensors such as NLRP1 and CARD8. Here, we find that the 3CL protease (3CLpro) encoded by diverse coronaviruses, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), cleaves a rapidly evolving region of human CARD8 and activates a robust inflammasome response. CARD8 is required for cell death and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We further find that natural variation alters CARD8 sensing of 3CLpro, including 3CLpro-mediated antagonism rather than activation of megabat CARD8. Likewise, we find that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in humans reduces CARD8’s ability to sense coronavirus 3CLpros and, instead, enables sensing of 3C proteases (3Cpro) from select picornaviruses. Our findings demonstrate that CARD8 is a broad sensor of viral protease activities and suggests that CARD8 diversity contributes to inter- and intraspecies variation in inflammasome-mediated viral sensing and immunopathology.