キュウリ(Cucumis sativus L.)の花形形質、花粉媒介者の誘引および体力に及ぼす土壌栄養の影響 Impacts of soil nutrition on floral traits, pollinator attraction, and fitness in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.)
Anthony D. Vaudo,Emily Erickson,Harland M. Patch,Christina M. Grozinger & Junpeng Mu
Scientific Reports Published:16 December 2022
Annual plants allocate soil nutrients to floral display and pollinator rewards to ensure pollination success in a single season. Nitrogen and phosphorus are critical soil nutrients whose levels are altered by intensive land use that may affect plants’ fitness via pollinator attractiveness through floral display and rewards. In a controlled greenhouse study, we studied in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) how changes in soil nitrogen and phosphorus influence floral traits, including nectar and pollen reward composition. We evaluated how these traits affect bumble bee (Bombus impatiens, an important cucumber pollinator) visitation and ultimately fruit yield. While increasing nitrogen and phosphorus increased growth and floral display, excess nitrogen created an asymptotic or negative effect, which was mitigated by increasing phosphorus. Male floral traits exhibited higher plasticity in responses to changes in soil nutrients than female flowers. At 4:1 nitrogen:phosphorus ratios, male flowers presented increased nectar volume and pollen number resulting in increased bumble bee visitation. Interestingly, other pollinator rewards remained consistent across all soil treatments: male and female nectar sugar composition, female nectar volume, and pollen protein and lipid concentrations. Therefore, although cucumber pollination success was buffered in conditions of nutrient stress, highly skewed nitrogen:phosphorus soil ratios reduced plant fitness via reduced numbers of flowers and reward quantity, pollinator attraction, and ultimately yield.